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    Neuroscience

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Conditions

 

Arteriovenous Malformation

Arteriovenous Malformation

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal condition where the arteries and veins are tangled in a particular site resulting in impaired blood flow to the brain tissues around the AVM. Arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to different parts of the body. Veins carry de-oxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. Arteries and veins are interconnected to each other by several capillaries.

Cavernous Malformation

Cavernous Malformation

Cavernous malformations (CMs) are clusters of abnormal, stretched-out, thin-walled blood vessels filled with blood, hence the name “cavernous”. These blood vessel malformations can occur in the brain or spinal cord.

Brain Aneurysm

Brain Aneurysm

A brain aneurysm is the ballooning of a weak area on the wall of an artery in the brain. An aneurysm can leak or rupture causing blood to escape into the brain. This is an emergency condition, as the blood can damage brain tissue and increase pressure inside the skull, disrupting oxygen supply to the brain, which can lead to unconsciousness or even death. Brain aneurysms usually develop in the arteries at the base of the brain, at weak points where the arteries branch off or fork.

Seizures

Seizures

A seizure is a sudden, brief attack caused by changes in the brain’s electrical activity. It is quite common in people with a brain tumor. During a seizure, a person’s brain cells misfire releasing electrical energy in an uncontrolled manner. This results in a sudden buildup of energy through the brain, causing unconsciousness and contractions of the muscles. The person may cry, become unconscious, or twitch involuntarily.

Epilepsy

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a condition caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain that produces symptoms such as confusion, staring spells, and most commonly, episodes of involuntary shaking (seizures), which may be followed by periods of unconsciousness. Epilepsy usually begins in childhood.

Brain Tumours

Brain Tumours

Brain and spinal cord tumors are found in the tissue inside the skull or the bony spinal column which make up the central nervous system (CNS). A tumor is a mass of normal or abnormal cells that form a new growth or is present at birth (congenital). Tumors occur when genes that regulate cell growth become damaged or mutated, allowing cells to grow and divide out of control. When most normal cells grow, old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.

Hemorrhages

Hemorrhages

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a type of stroke that refers to bleeding from a diseased blood vessel within the brain. The blood that leaks into the brain results in a sudden increase in pressure and can cause tissue destruction. Rapid increase in the amount of blood leakage can cause extreme build-up in pressure and can lead to unconsciousness or even death. This is a serious condition requiring emergency medical care.

Sleep Disorders

Sleep Disorders

Sleep is essential for your physical health and emotional wellbeing. Everyone experiences occasional sleeping problems, but if you experience problems sleeping repeatedly, it could indicate an underlying health problem. Sleep disorders are problems associated with sleeping, including difficulty falling or staying asleep through the night, feeling sleepy during the day, or waking up feeling exhausted.

Stroke

Stroke

The brain requires a continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients from the blood in order to function properly. A blockage, interruption or severe reduction in the supply of blood to the brain can result in a condition called a stroke. Stroke is a medical emergency that leads to the death of brain cells within minutes of the interruption in blood supply. Prompt treatment is vital to minimize brain damage and improve outcomes.

Dementia

Dementia

Dementia is a group of symptoms affecting memory, thinking and communication associated with many neurological conditions. Symptoms vary depending on the part of the brain that is damaged. It can affect your judgment, cause confusion and forgetfulness, and disrupt your daily activities. Symptoms may also include coordination difficulties (getting lost), changes in personality, agitation and hallucinations.

Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus means water on the brain. It is characterized by the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the brain inside the skull. Excessive accumulation of fluid within the limited space of skull imparts pressure on the brain and causes damage to the brain tissue. It mostly occurs in children but may also occur in adults and old people.

Spinal Disc Herniation

Spinal Disc Herniation

A herniated disc, also called slipped disc or ruptured disc, is a condition caused from wear and tear of the cushioning discs present between the bones of the vertebral column. These discs act as shock absorbers while walking or running, and are made up of an outer tough layer (annulus) that surrounds a jelly-like center (nucleus). Disc herniation occurs when a part of the disc nucleus is pushed beyond the annulus through a rupture or tear.

Infections & Tumors

Infections & Tumors

Encephalitis and myelitis are neurological inflammatory conditions that occur mostly due to viral infections. Encephalitis affects one or several areas of the brain, and myelitis affects the spinal cord.Encephalitis is a rare condition that may also occur due to immune system defects where the brain is attacked by the body’s own defense system. In the initial stages, you may experience flu-like symptoms such as headache and fever.

Head or Spinal Cord Trauma

Head or Spinal Cord Trauma

The brain, the seat of all bodily functions, is greatly protected by membranes, fluid that absorbs shock and a hard-boney skull surrounding it. Despite this, high-intensity trauma such as motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, falls or assaults can cause trauma to the head, injuring the scalp, skull or brain. Head trauma can be of various types:

Neuromuscular Diseases

Neuromuscular Diseases

Neuromuscular scoliosis is a condition characterized by abnormal curving of the spine due to asymmetrical myoneural (muscle-nerve) pathways in the body. The spine may appear twisted to form a multidimensional curve. In the long-term, this spinal deformity may affect pulmonary function and decrease overall physical activity. Neuromuscular scoliosis is commonly associated with cerebral palsy (neuromuscular condition caused by an injury to the immature brain) in children.

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis</

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) affecting the myelin sheath which insulates nerve cells and is important for the transmission of nerve impulses. This causes the relay of information between the brain and the rest of your body to either slow down or stop and can lead to muscle weakness, difficulty with coordination and balance, vision and speech difficulties, tremors, dizziness, and cognitive difficulties.

Headaches

Headaches

Pain in any region of the head is called a headache. It may involve one or both sides of the head and may radiate to the neck and shoulders. You may experience dull pressure, a throbbing sensation or sharp pain that may last anywhere between an hour to days. In some cases, it may indicate a serious underlying disease.

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